Tivoli, also known as Tivoli Gardens, is an amusement park and theme park in Copenhagen, Denmark. The park opened on August 15, 1843 and is the second oldest amusement park in the world, after Dyrehavsbakken in nearby Klumpenborg, also in Denmark.
Tivoli, which was visited by 4.6 million people in 2017, is the second most popular seasonal theme park in the world after Europa-Park. The Tivoli is the fifth most visited theme park in Europe after Disneyland, Europe Park, Walt Disney Studios Park and Efteling. It is located right in the center of Copenhagen, next to the main railway station of the city.
The amusement park was originally called "Tivoli and Vauxhall"; "Tivoli" is related to the Garden of Tivoli in Paris (which, in turn, was named after Tivoli near Rome, Italy), and "Vauxhall" is related to the gardens of Vauxhall in London. It is mentioned in various books, such as "Number the stars" Lois Lowry, and was also widely used in the 1961 science fiction film "Reptiles".
The founder of Tivoli, Georg Carstensen (b. 1812 - d. 1857), received a five-year charter to create Tivoli, telling King Christian VIII that "when people have fun, they do not think about politics. The monarch gave the use of Carstensen of about 15 acres (61,000 m 2 ) fortified voice outside Vesterport (West Gate) for the annual rent. Until the 1850s, Tivoli was outside the city, you can get from it only through Vesterport.
From the very beginning, Tivoli included many attractions: buildings in the exotic style of the imaginary East: theater, concert halls, restaurants and cafes, flower beds and mechanical attractions such as carousel and primitive picturesque railway. . With the onset of darkness, the gardens were illuminated by colored lamps. In certain evenings, specially designed fireworks could be seen as a reflection in Tivoli Lake, a remnant of the moat surrounding the city fortifications.
The composer Hans Christian Lumbier (born 1810 - died 1874) was the musical director of Tivoli from 1843 to 1872. Lumbier was inspired by Viennese waltz composers, such as the Strauss family (Johann Strauss I and his sons), and became known as the "Strauss" of the North. Many of his compositions are specially inspired by gardens, including "Salute to Tivoli Ticket Holders", "Carnival Joy" and "Holiday Night in Tivoli". The Tivoli Symphony Orchestra still performs many of his works.
The park is best known for its wooden roller coaster Rutschebanen, or as some call it, the Bjergbanen (Mountain Rides), built in 1914. It is one of the oldest wooden roller coasters in the world that still operates today. The operator controls the ride by braking so that it does not gain too much speed when going down the hills. This is the ACE Coaster Classic.
Another slide, the demon ( Dæmonen ), features an Immelmann loop , and a vertical loop , and a roll of zero-G all while riding for one minute and forty-six seconds. The old "Snake" roller coaster (slang) has been removed so that there is enough space for the Demon. In 2017, Tivoli Gardens added to the attraction additional experience of virtual reality, simulating a flight through ancient China, as well as meetings with dragons and demons. The demon is near the concert hall.
The famous riding swing, The Star Flyer, was opened in Tivoli in 2006, 80 meters (260 feet) and built by Austria on the basis of the Australian company Funtime, offers a panoramic view of the city.
May 1, 2009 in Tivoli Gardens was opened a new attraction "Dizziness" - a circular flight in which the pilot controls the attraction, capable of driving the plane.
Zamperla Air Racing, Aquila, opened on April 11, 2013. It is a giant swing and coc with a centrifugal power up to 4 g, named after the constellation of the Eagle.
The newest attraction is Fatamorgana, which opened in 2016. It is the world's first Condor 2GH to offer two separate seating arrangements, one softer version with double gondolas and an exciting version in which riders will swing at high speed, sitting in a ring and facing away from the center.