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17.11.2020

Danish War Museum, Copenhagen

Museum of War , until July 2018 called Tøjhusmuseet , is a cultural-historical special museum for Danish weapons and military history . The museum is located on Slotsholmen Street in Copenhagen. In particular, between Christiansborg and Søren Kierkegaards Plads in Christian 4th Tøjhusmuseet since 1604. It was founded in 1928/37.

The museum is part of the National Museum . The Toyhus Museum has a collection of several thousand pistols and over a hundred guns. In addition, there is a large collection of vehicles - tanks, jeeps, trucks, motorcycles, etc. E. - and planes. The Navy is represented, among other things, by models of ships and paintings of naval battles. The museum also has a very large collection of uniforms, both from Denmark and abroad. Finally, the museum also has a large number of other items intended for use in the war.

The Military Museum since 1960 is under the authority of the Ministry of Culture . Before that, the museum was under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of War and the Ministry of Defense . In 2004, the museum was merged with another historical defense museum in Copenhagen - Orlogsmuseet, which was located in Kristianskhavn and since 1500 represented the Navy and its history. Together they were called Statens Forsvarshistoriske Museum . January 1, 2014 Toyhus Museum (together with the Naval Museum) was transferred to the National Museum. The Military Museum was closed at the end of 2015, after which its collections were moved to the Military Museum.

In 1928, the museum under the leadership of Captain Stöckel was founded as an independent institution under the Ministry of War. The purpose of the museum was to convey the Danish history of weapons and war and show some of the unique collections that were on the territory. 

The weapons in Teyhuset have been around since King Christian IV. The House of Clothing was built as an arsenal building for the Navy, but there were not only weapons for use in conflicts, in which the king was constantly involved, but also curious weapons and artifacts from previous royal and princely collections of the Middle Ages. Christian 4 himself was very interested in old weapons and interesting objects from the previous times. Thus, the museum, founded in 1928, was not the first group exhibition in the large building of Toichuset. From 1830s part of the arsenal was occupied by the Collection of Historical Weapon. Here, rust master Georg Christensen installed and hung on the walls a large number of antique weapons with skilful patterns.

Stöckel had to change this very hanging of museum items on complex, unscientific samples. This happened at a time when museums in general increasingly turned into scientific, academically grounded institutions. In the past, museums were first of all offices of rarities, where the main attention was paid to the peculiarities of nature, rather than to the enlightening institutional "education" of people.

Nevertheless, the Collection of Historical Weapons and the staff from here had a great influence on how the new museum and new exhibitions should look like. Thus, from the very first years, the museum became more of a museum of weapons than a museum of war or defense. Many of the weapons and objects that Christensen hanged in various schemes were reused in the regrouping of objects by Stöckel. The difference, however, was that they were no longer placed randomly where they fit the pattern, but instead lined up according to a scientific model - the weapons were arranged in chronological order and types.

Stöckel completed installation of the new museum in 1937. When it was finished, the Armory (that is, the 1st floor) of the Clothouse was filled with rows of firearms and guns. Almost complete chronological collection of small arms history. On the first floor - Canonhallen - Stöckel lined up a large number of artillery brochures. There were guns of the earliest types from the early 16th century to the guns that the army used in Stöckel's time. Subsequently, this exhibition stood almost intact for many decades. However, more weapons were added as the events unfolded.

After World War II and until May 2005, one of the four cannons used at the Tirpitz position was in the courtyard of the Toichus Museum. 111-ton gun was moved to the Museumscenter Hanstholm.

Around 2010, the museum management decided that both the exhibition and its underlying museological principles should be thoroughly updated. Therefore, until the end of 2012, the museum staff modernized the permanent exposition starting from the first floor. The idea was that the entire museum should become a modern museum of cultural communication. The project group of the new exhibition worked under the name "War and Man", and thus, the new permanent exposition placed more emphasis on people working in the war. The huge focus on weapons and weapons development over the centuries has been replaced by the main focus on Denmark's role as a war veteran and the people who decided, fought, won or lost wars.

In 2004, the Toyhus Museum and the Naval Museum were merged into the State Museum of Fordvarshistoriski. In practice, however, there were still two physically separate museums, as the Naval Museum with an emphasis on the Navy was in the old Søkvæsthuset in Kristianskhavn . The State Forsvarshistoriske Museum was closed on 1 January 2014, after which both museums were transferred to the National Museum. However, next year, the National Museum decided to close the Naval Museum as an independent museum. January 1, 2016. Then in 2016, his collections were moved to the Toyhus Museum. The idea was to better show the connection between the war at sea and the war on land.

Tøjhusmuseet changed its name to Krigsmuseet in July 2018.

The Tøjhusmuseet collection is a mixture of about 40 large and small collections from near and far abroad and is one of Europe's largest collections of small arms and magnificent weapons. However, not all collections of Danish weapons and military equipment make up the general collection of the museum. There are also flags, medical equipment, various accessories for war, cars and airplanes, hunting weapons, recreational weapons, Asian weapons, uniforms from near and far abroad, as well as a collection of hiking beds and much more.

One of the most outstanding parts of the museum's collection is the Gotthorpe arms collection. The collection consists of a large number of armors and weapons, as well as other military material from the arsenal of Gotthorpe dukes. There are many unique hunting and magnificent rifles, as well as armors with gold and silver base.

Besides this collection, the museum's collection of magnificent uniforms from the times of the Russian kingdom is also quite unique. Some uniforms are almost unique after the Bolshevik Revolution overthrew the Tsarist Empire and radically changed the country and the army. This form was exhibited at a special exhibition from 15.1.2003 to 31.12.2003.

The Russian uniform was not unique in the way it was depicted. Many of these objects saw the light only in connection with one of the many special exhibitions that the museum has held over the years. The permanent exhibition is primarily devoted to weapons related to Danish military history. The new exhibition will try to include some of the infinitely many interesting objects that were previously deprived of space in the center of attention. At the same time, the Permanent Exhibition plans a project with several showcases of collections, a number of large showcases with a selection of different collections. For example, the Curiosa and kitch collections, Asian collection and Gottorp Armory.

Already during the coronation of Christian IV in 1596 began to talk about the construction of a new house of clothing for the Danish troops. And the young king began a grand project back in 1598. After completion of construction Toehuset in Copenhagen was the largest building in the city. Probably at one time it was also the largest or one of the largest clothing stores in the world.

Christian IV built a sewing house to strengthen his fleet. For this reason, the Tøjhus factory was originally built around a large port pool. The pool is about 4 meters deep, in which you could drag large wooden warships. Inside the ships could be equipped with ropes, guns, gunpowder, guns, sails and beer from Kongens Bryghus . Here are all the most important functions, so that the ships did not have to bypass the entire waterfront to bring on board the necessary things.

The House of Clothing was built on Slotsholmen, just behind the Royal Palace. Slotsholmen was one of the absolute centers of power in Denmark then (as it is today). Here was concentrated most of the royal power, and so it was natural that the king wanted his arsenal to be nearby.

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